the jurisdiction of the Council of the Indies. This war was less of a success than the war against Venice, and in 1516, France agreed to a truce that left Milan in its control and recognized Spanish control of Upper Navarre, which had effectively been a Spanish protectorate following a series of treaties. Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva Espaa: Manuscrito "Guatemala" (in Spanish ). Foreigner merchants were part of the supposed monopoly system of trade. Its defeat did not end the threat. Fernández Herrero, Beatriz (1992).
Pedro Cieza de Len, 1553. For four years the Castilians traded and fought; but the Portuguese were the stronger. The Portuguese triumph in this agreement is evident, and in addition deserved. The Spanish crown funded a number of important scientific expeditions: Botanical Expedition to the Viceroyalty of Peru (177778 Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada (1783-1816 281 the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Spain (1787-1803 282 283 which scholars are now examining afresh.
Lockhart, James and Stuart. The English established colonies on the eastern seaboard of North America and in northern North America and some Caribbean islands as well. Spain sought to enforce their rights in the Moluccan islands, which led a conflict with the Portuguese, but the issue was resolved with the Treaty of Zaragoza (1525 settling the location of the antimeridian of Tordesillas, which would divide the world into two equal hemispheres. One famous attack upon a Spanish mission in 1628 resulted in the enslavement of about 60,000 indigenous people. The war was a disaster for France, which suffered defeat in the Battle of Biccoca (1522 the Battle of Pavia (1525 in which Francis I was captured and imprisoned in Madrid, 121 and in the Battle of Landriano (1529) before Francis relented and abandoned Milan. Give yourself an hour and a quiet room. In 1806 Baron Nikolai Rezanov attempted to negotiate a treaty between the Russian-American Company and the Viceroyalty of New Spain, but his unexpected death in 1807 ended any treaty hopes. France was now the dominant power on continental Europe, and the United Provinces were dominant in the Atlantic. "Las bulas de 1493 en el Derecho Indiano" (PDF). Spanish settlers in the Indies in the very early period were few and Spain could supply sufficient goods to them. One after another, most of the Spanish possessions were lost: Pen de Vélez de la Gomera (1522 Santa Cruz de Mar Pequea (1524 Algiers (1529 Tripoli (1551 Bujia (1554 and La Goleta and Tunis (1569). Diego-Fernández Sotelo, Rafael (1987).
The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy: France. Spanish princesses married the heirs of Portugal, England and the House of Habsburg.